Next-generation sequencing is a catchall term for new, high-throughput technologies that allow rapid sequencing of a full genome. It can be used to sequence a patient’s DNA in diagnosing a genetic disorder or characterizing a cancer, but can also be used to sequence the genome of a pathogenic bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasites. In this JAMA clinical review podcast, we talk with authors Marta Gwinn, MD, MPH, and Gregory L. Armstrong, MD, from the CDC, about how next-generation sequencing of inf...more
E-values are a new tool that enables investigators to estimate the likelihood that some unmeasured confounder might overcome seemingly positive results. They are very easy to calculate and any reader of the medical literature can do this calculation to get a sense for how likely it is that there is some unmeasured factor in an observational study that might negate otherwise seemingly positive findings. Read the article: Using the E-Value to Assess the Potential Effect of Unmeasured Confounding ...more
Saved by a Fitbit. Technology is developing at a pace far exceeding its application in medical care. An exception is in consumer devices, which as long as they do not hold themselves out as diagnostic tools, can apply as many technologies to wearable devices as companies want to put into them. In this episode we discuss how a clinician used a wearable device to diagnose his father's rapid heart rates consistent with dangerous cardiac arrhythmias. Read the article: Wearable Devices for Cardiac R...more
Breast cancer screening is debated passionately among those who advocate for very aggressive screening and other experts who believe that screening can be harmful. The arguments for all sides of the debate are best understood by knowing the numbers of women who will benefit or be harmed by breast cancer screening. Both sides of the debate are explained in this podcast by Nancy Keating, MD, and Lydia Pace, MD, both from the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston.
Very few people who think they are allergic to penicillin actually are. Yet, even if someone reports a remote and vague history of penicillin allergy, these very useful medications will not be given. This forces many patients to use antibiotics that may be too broad spectrum, not very effective, or expensive. Three major societies have come together to agree on an approach for assessing if penicillin allergy is really present when a patient reports an allergy to these medications. Erica S. Sheno...more
When flying and they call "Is there a licensed medical professional on board," should physicians respond? If so, what should they do? Are they liable if things go wrong? We interview Christian Martin-Gill, MD, MPH, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, who is an expert on in-flight emergencies and authored a JAMA review on the topic.
The statistical concept of Bayes comes up in clinical medicine all the time. It simply means that what you know about something factors into how you analyze it. This contrasts with the commonly used statistical approach called frequentist analysis of hypothesis testing, in which it is assumed that every situation is unique and not influenced by the past. Bayesian analysis accounts for how prior information gets factored into decision making and is important to understand when applying clinical r...more
Within the last 2 years, major guidelines have been issued from US-based and European organizations that differ in their recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Experts from both sides of the Atlantic--Paul Whelton, MD, from the United States and Bryan Williams, MD, from Europe--discuss the similarities and differences in these guidelines and the basis for the differences. They were interviewed by JAMA editors Greg Curfman, MD, and Ed Livingston, MD. Part 1 [LINK] of thi...more
What is it like to go through alcohol withdrawal at home? What is it like for a mother to sit by her son's side while he goes through withdrawal and supporting him? Why does someone who doesn't have any particular reason to drink misuse alcohol? The answers to these questions can be found by listening to a narrative from one patient and his mother about his descent into alcohol misuse, his experiences with withdrawal, and his eventual overcoming of a dreadful alcohol addiction. Read the article:...more
Within the last 2 years, major guidelines have been issued from US-based and European organizations that differ in their recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Experts from both sides of the Atlantic—Paul Whelton, MD, from the United States (Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana) and Bryan Williams, MD, from Europe (University College London in England)—discuss the similarities and differences in these guidelines and the basis for the differences. They were intervie...more
What if the patient you are managing in the ICU is not asleep when you thought they were? Patients relate their very disturbing stories about what they experienced while in an ICU and their treating clinicians thought they were asleep.
Venous thromboembolic disease is common. There are many steps necessary to establish a diagnosis or treat this disease. These are summarized in this JAMA Clinical Reviews podcast and interview with Philip S. Wells, MD, from the Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and author of a recent JAMA review on the topic.
Alcohol withdrawal is a serious problem that can lead to mortality. How to predict if it will occur when a patient who is misusing alcohol is admitted to the hospital is challenging. This Rational Clinical Examination article reports results of a systematic review of the literature to determine the best way to predict the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal. Read the article: Will This Hospitalized Patient Develop Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Re...more
In 2015, JAMA published results of a randomized clinical trial showing that antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis was feasible. Doubters of the efficacy of antibiotics for treating appendicitis were concerned about what the long-term recurrence rate would be for those patients treated without surgery. The 5-year results of the study are now presented, showing that only about 40% of patients treated with antibiotics ultimately go on to have an appendectomy. Read the article: Five-Year Foll...more
There are new findings about another form of Borrelia: Borrelia miyamotoi. This form of Borrelia causes a relapsing fever but is spread in the same way that Lyme disease is. To help understand these new findings we spoke with Eugene Shapiro, MD, from the Department of Pediatrics and Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases at Yale.
In this JAMA Clinical Reviews podcast, we talk to Eugene D. Shapiro, MD, from Yale University School of Medicine for an update on Lyme disease, including new ideas about its diagnosis and treatment.
Syphilis is on the rise despite prior successful efforts to control it. Why is it coming back and what needs to be done about it? Dr Charles Hicks from UC San Diego explains. This podcast coincides with updated syphilis screening recommendations from the USPSTF that were published in the September 4, 2018 issue of JAMA.
Up to 7% of the entire US population has alcohol use disorder. It’s important for every clinician to understand how to approach patients to question them about their use of alcohol and to establish a diagnosis when alcohol use disorder is present. Dr Henry Kranzler, from the University of Pennsylvania, is an authority on managing alcohol use disorder and discusses its diagnosis and treatment in this JAMA clinical reviews podcast. Read the article: Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Use Di...more
Bleeding is one of the most common preventable causes of death. It is common, yet most people don't know what to do about it when they see it. The Stop the Bleed campaign is an effort to educate the public should they encounter people who are bleeding. Simple maneuvers can have a great beneficial effect. In this JAMA Clinical Reviews podcast, we hear from people with substantial experience in managing bleeding in the field and what they recommend for managing this otherwise deadly problem. Read ...more
As the AIDS crisis unfolded, each discovery seemed to lead to a new mystery. Who was at risk? Why was this disease of immune activation so hard for the body to fight? Most important, what could be done to stop it? In the conclusion of this JAMA Clinical Reviews series, we'll continue the story of the small team of CDC clinicians on the frontlines of the AIDS epidemic as they worked to stem the flow of this devastating disease.
When AIDS first appeared in the gay community in 1981, it was terrifying for patients and clinicians alike. Nobody knew exactly what was going on. But using basic epidemiologic methods, a small team of public servants at the CDC raced against the clock to unravel the mystery, doing their best to minimize the damage of this rapidly spreading disease.
Misplaced fears about IUDs have caused them to be avoided by many women, despite the fact that they are very safe and among the most effective means for contraception. In this JAMA Clinical Reviews podcast, we review long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and how contraceptive practices were affected by the Dalkon Shield tragedy.
Health care spending in the United States is out of control. The most significant aspect of medical care driving this spending is pharmaceuticals; within pharmaceuticals the greatest increases have been in spending for diabetes medications. The cost of insulin analogs has increased 5- to 6-fold in the last 10 years for no particular reason. More than 90% of US patients who use insulin use these analogs, despite the fact that they have few if any clinical benefits relative to regular or NPH insul...more
The American College of Physicians just changed its guidance for how aggressively to treat type 2 diabetes, relaxing the HbA1c goal to something below 8 rather than 6.5 or 7 as other organizations recommend. This has stirred up substantial controversy. The rationale behind this decision is presented in this podcast. Related article
For many years guidelines have recommended against obtaining ECGs for low-risk patients undergoing routine health examinations. Yet about a fifth of all patients having these exams get an ECG. Why? Are clinicians just stubborn or uninformed or are the guidelines missing something clinicians are concerned about? Read the article: The Screening ECG and Cardiac Risks
Many attempts to replace the trachea have failed in the past. The most spectacular failure was fraudulent research done in Europe by a high-profile surgeon who was eventually charged with scientific misconduct. JAMA now reports a clinical series of successful tracheal transplants done in France. How do we know the procedures described in JAMA really worked? The answer is provided in this podcast.
The controversy continues about the efficacy of PSA screening for prostate cancer. New recommendations were just issued from the USPSTF about who should be screened for prostate cancer and when. But not everyone agrees with these recommendations. Ballentine Carter, MD, from the Department of Urology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, discusses the new recommendations and provides an expert urologist's perspective on PSA screening for prostate cancer. Related article
Peanut allergy is common. But it is more common in countries that delay the introduction of peanuts into the diets of infants. Guidelines in the United States previously recommended delayed introduction of peanuts for infants, which resulted in an increased prevalence of peanut allergy. New recommendations now recommend early introduction of peanuts into infants’ diets to minimize the risk of developing peanut allergy. Read the article: Peanut Allergy Prevention
Acute respiratory disease syndrome is characterized by respiratory failure that occurs after someone is acutely ill, usually from a disease that does not primarily involve the lungs. Its cause, diagnosis, and treatment are reviewed in this JAMA Clinical Reviews Podcast for the February 20, 2018 issue
Douglas H. Smith, MD, of the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Neurosurgery and Center for Brain Injury and Repair, and Randel Swanson II, DO, PhD, of the University of Pennsylvania's Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation department, summarize findings from a clinical evaluation of US government personnel reporting neurologic symptoms after exposure to directional auditory and sensory phenomena during their official postings in Havana, Cuba.
The health risks associated with participation in American football have garnered increasing attention over the past several years. Particular focus has been on concussion and the association of repeated head trauma with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, other factors related to participation in professional football might be associated with better or worse health throughout life. Dr Ann McKee discusses the occurrence of CTE in a case series of deceased football players who donate...more
Why is two-thirds of the US population overweight or obese? Obesity began to increase in 1980, and its incidence is still rising. One reason for this might be that the population has become tolerant of obesity and accepted it as the normal state. On the other end of the spectrum, some people desire to lose weight but, in general, diets and medications are not very effective. The most effective way to lose weight is with bariatric surgery. A relatively new procedure, the gastric sleeve resection,...more
The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing. Like so many cancers, it is being diagnosed at earlier stages because of more aggressive screening and diagnostic testing. The aggressiveness of very early stage thyroid cancer is unknown and some of these tumors may be managed by active surveillance instead of surgery. In this podcast, Dr Sally Carty, Professor of Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh, reviews how to manage thyroid cancer. Natural History and Tumor Volume Kinetics of Papillary Th...more
Sinusitis is one of the most common conditions seen by clinicians. Despite its frequency, it is often misdiagnosed. In this podcast, we review the proper way to establish a diagnosis and treat both acute and chronic sinusitis. Related article
In November 2017, new guidelines were issued for hypertension treatment. They are a comprehensive overhaul of recommendations for both the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Last week, we discussed the guidelines' specific recommendations with Dr Paul Whelton, professor of medicine at Tulane University, who chaired the guidelines-writing committee. We also spoke to Dr Phil Greenland from Northwestern University, who is one of the cardiology editors for JAMA. This week, in part 2 of this po...more
Cystic fibrosis is a common autosomal recessive disease. It is caused by any one of many discrete genetic abnormalities that affect chloride transport. Identification of specific genetic abnormalities enables clinicians to identify drugs that counteract the effects of the abnormal genes. In this podcast we review how genetic defects that cause cystic fibrosis are identified and how drugs that are likely to successfully treat the disease are matched to those genetic abnormalities. Related article...more
In November 2017, new guidelines were issued for hypertension treatment. The new guideline is a comprehensive overhaul of recommendations for both the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Based on years of work by dozens of individuals who generated 106 recommendations, the guideline is complicated. Dr Paul Whelton, an author of the guideline, and Dr Phil Greenland, Professor of Medicine at Northwestern University and one of our cardiology editors here at JAMA, explain the major recommendati...more
The best evidence for proving cause-and-effect comes from randomized clinical trials. However, they are expensive and difficult to perform. The natural assortment of gene variants at birth can mimic randomization in some circumstances and yield important clinical information that can help physicians better care for their patients. Read the article: Mendelian Randomization
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. When they were first discovered in the early part of the 20th century, there was great enthusiasm for their potential use to treat all sorts of bacterial infections. They were supplanted by antibiotics and although they remained critically important in research that led to the understanding of DNA and how it works, bacteriophages never really made it in the therapeutic world. Now that multiple-drug-resistant bacteria are becoming increasi...more
Urinary incontinence in women is common but not often discussed. Linda Brubaker, MD, and Emily S. Lukacz, MD, review the evaluation and management of incontinence in women, including how to broach the topic with patients and when to use treatments ranging from behavioral interventions and pelvic floor muscle exercises to vaginal devices, medications, and office-based procedures or surgery.
An increasing number of transgender patients are being seen in all care settings. Their medical needs are not too different from those for any primary care patient. New guidelines issued by the Endocrine Society in September 2017 are summarized in this podcast.
Powerful new genetic technologies enable clinicians to detect and sequence tiny amounts of free DNA circulating in blood. DNA gets into blood when cells fall apart. Abnormal DNA from diseased cells can be detected, enabling clinicians to detect cancer or monitor tumor growth by liquid biopsy. In this JAMA Clinical Reviews podcast, we talked with Victor E. Velculescu, MD, PhD, from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and JAMA medical writer M.J. Friedrich about this new technology. Related arti...more
Delirium goes unrecognized in approximately 60% of cases. When it is recognized, it can be difficult to treat. Recognizing and treating, as well as preventing, delirium is important because delirium is associated with poor health outcomes and significant health care costs. Esther S. Oh, MD, PhD, Tammy T. Hshieh, MD, MPH, and Sharon K. Inouye, MD, MPH, discuss their review article about advances in diagnosis and treatment of delirium, and Dr Maria Duggan provides additional insights about diagnos...more
Every successive major clinical trial of less invasive breast cancer surgery seems to show that less is more--less because less surgery seems to not influence outcomes and more because with less surgery, there are fewer complications, resulting in a net benefit for women with breast cancer.
Clinicians can now sample DNA from in vitro blastocysts to identify embryos with genetic abnormalities and avoid implanting them. This genetic screening allows couples who carry dangerous genetic diseases to avoid having children with those diseases. Interviewees: Siobhan M. Dolan, MD, Tamar H. Goldwaser, MD, and Sangita K. Jindal, PhD Links discussed in this episode: Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Mendelian Conditions
Some drugs and devices receive accelerated approval from the FDA in order to provide potentially important treatments for patients when effective therapies may not be available. These drugs or devices are supposed to have postmarketing studies to definitively show their efficacy or safety, but sometimes this doesn't happen. Rita F. Redberg, MD, MSc, Aaron S. Kesselheim, MD, JD, MPH, and Robert M. Califf, MD, discuss their articles characterizing studies used for the approval of high-risk medical...more
Scott Grundy, MD, PhD, is a professor of medicine at UT Southwestern in Dallas and is one of a small group of investigators who saved statins from being dumped as a potential drug class. Dr Grundy tells the story of how studying patients with familial hypercholesterolemia unraveled the mysteries of high cholesterol levels. This resulted in the development of very effective drugs to treat any patient with high cholesterol. Familial hypercholesterolemia is fairly common and when patients have very...more
Asthma often develops in childhood but also affects a significant number of adults. It can present in various ways and with varying degrees of severity. William J. Calhoun, MD, of the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, discusses the approach to diagnosis and provides tips for management of this common condition.
Following placement of cardiac stents, patients receive dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) to prevent stent thrombosis. Prevention of thrombosis is offset by a risk of bleeding. The optimal balance between thrombosis prevention and bleeding risk is not always known. How to go about optimizing DAPT therapy is discussed by Glen Levine, MD, professor of medicine at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, and chair of the combined American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideli...more
Allergy to penicillin is one of the most commonly reported allergies by patients. In reality, true penicillin allergy is uncommon. Dr. Elizabeth Phillips from Vanderbilt University discusses her experience with testing for penicillin allergy in patients who thought they had this problem.
Multiple guidelines have been issued regarding how aggressively cholesterol should be managed. These guidelines do not agree with one another and the most significant area of disagreement is in recommendations for high intensity statin therapy. In this podcast we discuss this issue with a number of experts in the field to help better understand how high-intensity statin therapy might be applied to patient care.
Chromosomal microarray technology (CMA) facilitates the genetic diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and congenital abnormalities in children. Previously, G-band karyotyping was the test performed for this purpose but it could only identify very large chromosomal abnormalities and was not very sensitive. Being a molecular rather than microscopic technique, CMA is far more sensitive for identifying genetic abnormalities and is now the test of choice. We interview Davi...more
Depression is very common in old age. Because it is associated with many issues related to aging such as having diabetes, hypertension, and other diseases and also the general ability to do less than when a person was younger, it is often assumed that depression is just part of the aging process. Inadequate treatment is often given for depression, frustrating patients and clinicians. However, aggressive depression treatment in elderly individuals can be very successful and greatly improve an old...more
Whole-genome sequencing is now easily done for very little cost. It is not known how to interpret the results of this testing. It is inadvisable for healthy individuals to undergo routine whole-genome sequencing but if someone has a reason to suspect a particular disease known to be associated with a unique gene, then targeted genetic sequencing is reasonable. Interviewee: James P. Evans, MD, PhD, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Much has changed recently in diabetes management. The treatment goal has shifted from rigorous glucose control with HbA1c as the primary target to cardiovascular risk reduction. Risk reduction can be achieved in a variety of ways and does not necessarily depend on expensive new drugs that were shown to achieve this end point. Older, cheaper drugs may achieve the same goal but were never tested in this context. Interview with JoAnn E. Manson, MD, PhD, from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston a...more
A resident is asked to remove a drain that was placed in the lumbar space during an operation. Having never seen this sort of drain before not having removed one, the resident proceeded to remove the catheter. Several days later, the patient complained of persistent drainage. An 11-cm segment of retained catheter was removed. This JAMA Performance Improvement article discusses how to avoid this sort of problem as well as how to ensure that resident physicians have sufficient skills to perform pr...more
Alzheimer disease causes progressive neurologic deterioration and is reasonably common in elderly patients. It is characterized by specific patterns of memory loss, which progressively worsens and for which there is no treatment. Recent drug trials have been disappointing in that promising medications have failed to affect the disease. Interesting new hypotheses have emerged from basic science research suggesting that the neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer brain lesions form in ...more
Recent guidelines for how to best manage septic shock have changed. Gone are recommendations for central venous oxygen saturation monitoring and goal-directed therapy. In is the concept that septic shock be treated as an emergency with rapid administration of antibiotics and large amounts of fluids. Our discussants Derek C. Angus, MD, MPH, and Michael D. Howell, MD, MPH, discuss why these recommendations have changed. This is the second podcast in the Surviving Sepsis guideline series. The first...more
In 2017 the Society for Critical Care Medicine updated its guidelines for sepsis management. These new guidelines differ significantly from ones in the past in that they no longer recommend protocolized resuscitation and emphasize early and aggressive fluid resuscitation when patients present with septic shock. This is the first podcast in the Surviving Sepsis guideline series. The next episode discusses why the new sepsis guideline changed. Article discussed in this episode: Management of Sep...more
Approximately one-third of all medical school graduates report having been abused as students. Medical student and resident abuse has long been considered unacceptable behavior but still persists in the teaching environment. In this podcast we discuss how students and residents might respond to these events. We interview Geoffrey Young, MD, from the Association of American Medical Colleges and Thomas J. Nasca, MD, from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, who discuss how the...more
As people age, loss of muscle mass is inevitable, resulting in sarcopenia. Muscle loss contributes to overall weakness, which causes frailty. Frailty, in turn, is the generalized susceptibility to disease and injury, all of which causes loss of autonomy. Because of the potential for progressive decline in physical function in very elderly patients, accurate tools are needed to predict mortality risk to individualize treatments intended to improve longevity such as chemotherapy, management of chr...more
Managing hypertension in elderly patients is complicated. Recent studies have shown that elderly patients may benefit from aggressive hypertension management, but other studies have shown that some are harmed by overly aggressive hypertension management. These issues were discussed in detail at the 2016 European Union Geriatric Medicine Society meeting. In this podcast we discuss how to best manage hypertension in elderly patients with Athanase Benetos, MD, PhD, a professor of internal medicine ...more
Workplace violence–related injuries occur disproportionately in health care settings. In this podcast, we discuss how individual clinicians should manage violent patients who might attack them. Article discussed in this episode: Ensuring Staff Safety When Treating Potentially Violent Patients
Between 8% and 10% of the population will have a seizure at one point in life. It's important to distinguish seizures from other entities that can look like them and, once a diagnosis of a seizure is established, know how to treat them. In this podcast we discuss seizures and epilepsy with Jay Gavvala, MD, author of New-Onset Seizure in Adults and Adolescents: A Review. Article discussed in this episode: New-Onset Seizure in Adults and Adolescents: A Review
Medicare recently developed a star rating system to help consumers determine the quality of care delivered at various hospitals. This rating system was considered controversial by many. In this podcast we discuss the rating system with one of its critics, Karl Y. Bilimoria, MD, MS, and with Kate Goodrich, MD, the Director of the Center for Clinical Standards and Quality at Medicare. Article discussed in this episode: The New CMS Hospital Quality Star Ratings: The Stars Are Not Aligned
Nearly all women experience some element of nausea and vomiting during their pregnancies. In this podcast we review the entire spectrum of disease all the way up to hyperemesis gravidarum and how to provide care for women experiencing these problems. Article discussed in this episode: Treatments for Hyperemesis Gravidarum and Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy
When managing septic shock, passive leg raising is the best test to determine if a patient is likely to respond to a fluid bolus, better than CVP lines or even bedside ultrasound. Dr Najib Ayas, Associate professor of Critical Care Medicine at the University of British Columbia, discusses shock management from the context of his Rational Clinical examination article in the September 27, 2016 issue of JAMA, entitled “Will This Hemodynamically Unstable Patient Respond to a Bolus of Intravenous Flu...more
Drug prices continue to rise in the US. Many solutions have been proposed but few have been implemented. Drs. Janet Woodcock from the FDA and Aaron Kesselheim, author of The High Cost of Prescription Drugs in the United States from the Harvard Medical School discuss the role of brand name drugs and generics and how they influence the cost of pharmaceuticals. Also see The Cost of US Pharmaceutical Price Reductions: A Financial Simulation Model of R&D Decisions by Thomas A. Abbott and John A. Ver...more
Edward H. Livingston, MD, discusses the British Columbia Ministry of Health’s 2015 guidelines on clinical management of opioid use disorder in adults with Keith Ahamad, MD, Evan Wood, MD, PhD, ABIM, FRCPC, Tony L. Yaksh, PhD, and Humayun J. Chaudhry, DO, MS, MACP, FACOI. Articles and resources discussed in this episode: Opioid Use and Addiction Microsite Clinical Management of Opioid Use Disorder (JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis) The Vancouver Opioid Use Disorder Guideline Model Policy on...more
Richard N. Rosenthal, MD discusses a randomized clinical trial demonstrating the efficacy of an implantable buprenorphine-releasing device for treating opioid use disorder.
Lyme disease is very common in certain regions of the country and is caused by the spirochete Borrelia bergdorferi. Lyme disease is transmitted by tick bites and in this podcast we review the discovery of Lyme disease, its major clinical features, and how to diagnose and treat it, as told by Dr Alan Steere, Dr Lyndon Hu, and Dr Paul Auerwerter. Related article:
Persistent diarrhea is a poorly recognized syndrome in all populations that requires proper assessment and diagnosis to ensure that affected individuals receive the treatment needed to experience improvement of clinical symptoms. Listen to Drs Herbert DuPont and Annie Feagins discuss how to diagnose and treat diarrhea. Related article:
Dr Allen Steere discovered Lyme disease and discusses what he saw and did when confronted early in his career with a previously undescribed disease. Late stage disease, a form not commonly seen today, is discussed in detail since that is how the disease presented before its cause was determined. Related article: Review of Lyme Disease, Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis
Drs Stuart Spechler and Peter Kahrilis discuss GERD and esophagitis--how they occur and how they are treated. Dr Spechler also discusses a new hypothesis regarding how reflux esophagitis is caused that differs from the traditional teaching that acid and pepsin reflux into the esophagus and burn the mucosa layers. Related articles: Association of Acute Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Esophageal Histologic Changes Turning the Pathogenesis of Acute Peptic Esophagitis Inside Out
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD is a very common problem affecting about 10% of all adolescents. Children with ADHD have short attention spans, are hyperactive, talk a great deal, can be disruptive in the classroom etc.-features that are common in many adolescents. However, to have true ADHD, children must be significantly impaired by these problems. An array of medical and behavioral treatments can successfully help manage ADHD. These are reviewed in a series of articles appea...more
Mononucleosis is a common disease of young adults manifested by lethargy, fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. In this podcast, we review the clinical features of the disease and how good each of them is at establishing a diagnosis of mononucleosis. We also review how Epstein Barr virus was discovered as the cause of mononucleosis and talk to Mark H. Ebell, MD, MS, author of Does This Patient Have Infectious Mononucleosis? The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. Ar...more
An opioid abuse epidemic now plagues US healthcare. It was caused, in part, by overzealous advocacy for controlling chronic pain resulting in overuse of narcotics. There are now 2 million Americans addicted to opioids. The approach for treating chronic pain must change. In this podcast, we summarize recent CDC guidelines for the proper use of opioids for treating chronic pain. Articles discussed in this episode: CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain— United States, 2016 The C...more
Polypharmacy is a rapidly worsening problem that hits elderly patients particularly hard. As patients grow older, they need more medications but at the same time become less capable of managing the complexity of drug treatments. In order to simplify treatment regimens for older patients, it is necessary to consider the evidence supporting treatment of various conditions and when the evidence is not particularly strong, reduce or eliminate medications accordingly. Diabetes management in the el...more
The American Cancer Society breast cancer screening guidelines have been changed to recommend annual screening for women older than 45 and every other year screening for women older than 55. Older women should only pursue screening if they have a more than 10 year life expectancy. These guidelines were somewhat controversial and were published in the October 15, 2015 issue of JAMA. JAMA Senior editor Mary McDermott interviews Nancy Keating, Evan Myers and Elizabeth Fontham to discuss these guide...more
Community acquired pneumonia accounts for 600,000 hospital admissions a year. Many patients with this disease are quite ill and have a very high mortality. To save lives, the appropriate antibiotics should be given in a timely basis, but it is not clear what the best antibiotics are and how long they should be given. In this podcast we interview the author of a JAMA review on community acquired pneumonia, Dr Jonathan Lee, author of Antibiotic Therapy for Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquir...more
The 2015-2020 US Dietary Guidelines for Americans were recently released. They are intended to provide guidance for health policy officials and clinicians regarding healthy diets and establishing goals for improving nutrition. These are important since bad eating habits are the underlying cause for a great deal of disease in the US and that these guidelines influence the operations of programs such as school lunch assistance, meals on wheels etc. Because these guidelines influence policy, they h...more
Peripheral neuropathy is a highly prevalent and morbid condition affecting 2% to 7% of the population. Patients frequently experience pain and are at risk of falls, ulcerations, and amputations. It is most commonly occurs in patients with diabetes. For most cases, the diagnosis and treatment of neuropathy can be made without complex testing or referral to specialists. Drs. Eva Feldman and Brian Callaghan from the University of Michigan Department of Neurology, authors of Distal Symmetric Polyneu...more
Constipation is one of the most frequent problems clinicians are asked to deal with. Despite how common it is, constipation is frequently not treated adequately. In this podcast, Arnold Wald, MD, explains a stepwise approach to the management of constipation ranging from very simple measures to the most novel and complicated new medical therapies. Articles discussed in this episode: JAMA Clinical Review: Constipation: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis: Eval...more
Appendicitis is one of the most common reasons people undergo abdominal surgery. Lost in history are the reasons why appendectomy was performed in the first place, and in the hundred years since appendicitis was first described, many changes in patient management have occurred improving both the diagnosis and treatments for appendicits. A major trial, Antibiotic Therapy vs Appendectomy for Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis, was recently published in JAMA showing that most patients wi...more
Minor head trauma usually does not cause significant brain injury. To be safe, clinicians often obtain head CT scans to ensure no major injury is present. For minor head trauma (Glascow coma scale 13-15), the risk to benefit ratio for head CT is usually not in favor of getting CT scans. When the Canadian head CT rule or New Orleans Criteria are negative, there is a very small risk for missing a significant brain injury. Joshua Easter, MD from the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Universit...more
Edward H. Livingston, MD discusses Graves disease with David Cooper, MD, author of Management of Graves Disease: A Review
Edward H. Livingston MD, explores the topic of prostate cancer screening in author interviews with: Dan Merenstein about losing a malpractice case despite following evidence-based medicine guidelines (PSA Screening — I Finally Won!). Otis Brawley about Prostate Cancer Incidence and PSA Testing Patterns in Relation to USPSTF Screening Recommendations. David F. Penson about The Pendulum of Prostate Cancer Screening. Victor M. Montori about The Connection Between Evidence-Based Medicine and Shar...more
ACS is a common and potentially lethal problem. However, only about 10% of patients who present to an emergency department with chest pain actually have ACS. In this JAMA Clinical Reviews podcast, we discuss which signs, symptoms and tests used to make the diagnosis of ACS are reliable. Edward H. Livingston MD, speaks with Alexander Fanaroff, MD, author of Does This Patient With Chest Pain Have Acute Coronary Syndrome? The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review as well as a patient who ...more
Interview with David Simel, MD, author of Does This Patient With Chest Pain Have Acute Coronary Syndrome? The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review
Interview with Ahmedin Jemal, DVM, PhD, author of Temporal Trends in Mortality in the United States, 1969-2013, and J. Michael McGinnis, MD, MPP, author of Mortality Trends and Signs of Health Progress. Also in this episode is a conversation with Christopher J.L. Murray, MD, DPhil, a Professor of Global Health at the University of Washington and Institute Director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. CME for this activity is available here.
Interview with Luke Rudmik, MD, MSc, author of Medical Therapies for Adult Chronic Sinusitis: A Systematic Review. This systematic review summarizes the evidence-based medical treatment of adult chronic sinusitis and proposes a treatment algorithm.
Edward H. Livingston, MD, interviews a war veteran and discusses PTSD with Maria Steenkamp, PhD, author of Psychotherapy for Military-Related PTSD, and Michele Spoont, PhD, author of Rational Clinical Exam: Does This Patient Have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? The article by Dr Steenkamp reports that many military personnel and veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder achieve clinically meaningful improvement with use of the first-line trauma-focused interventions cognitive processing therapy...more
Edward H. Livingston, MD discusses atrial fibrillation with Eric N. Prystowsky, MD, author of Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, and talks about new technologies to facilitate screening for atrial fibrillation with Leslie Saxon, MD.
Interview with Kevin P. Hill, MD, MHS, author of Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems: A Clinical Review, and Deepak Cyril D'Souza, MBBS, MD, author of Medical Marijuana: Is the Cart Before the Horse?
Edward H. Livingston, MD discusses stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation with Gregory Lip, MD, author of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review
Read the article and earn CME: bit.ly/1T3EpB1 Patient Page: bit.ly/1T3Exk0 Spanish Patient Page (Acalasia): bit.ly/1T3EHrr Understanding the swallowing disorders dysphagia and achalasia as explained by John Pandolfino, MD from Northwestern University. Dr Pandolfino describes how to examine patients with these disorders and how these diseases should be treated.