If your nascent bourgeoisie isn't big enough or rich enough to industrialize your Empire, just call Sergei Witte. He'll know what to do.
Everyone know Marxism isn't applicable to Russia. What my theory presupposes is...what if it did? sponsor: harrys.com/revolutions
Time to start mixing the baking soda and vinegar.
Kids today have no respect. Sponsor: casper.com/revolutions
After the disaster of the Crimean War, it was time for an era of Great Reform. Sponsor: audible.com/revolutions
Really missed a chance to call this episode "The Three Pillars of Russian Absolutism. Come hang out with us at soundeducation.fm
In December 1825, the Decembrists became the Decembrists. Sponsor: casper.com
This week, it's nothing less than The Divine Savior vs. The Antichrist
Peter the Great and Catherine the Great made the Russian Empire great.
Two Romes have fallen. The third stands. And there will be no fourth. No one shall replace your Christian Tsardom!
In 1872, the First International fractured into rival camps led by Marx and Bakunin.
Wherein we revisit the Paris Commune.
All Mikhail Bakunin wanted was a world without bosses. Sponsor: audible.com/revolutions
Mikhail Bakunin circumnavigated the globe and came back convinced that coercive authority was the pits. Direct Link: 10.5- The Adventures of Mikhail Bakunin Sponsor: casper.com/revolutions
The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles? Come see us: Intelligent Speech Conference
According to Lenin, Karl Marx was, "the genius who continued and consummated the three main ideological currents of the 19th century, as represented by the three most advanced countries of mankind: classical German philosophy, classical English political economy, and French socialism combined with French revolutionary doctrines in general.” Come see us in NY: Intelligent Speech Conference.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels dreamed of revolution. But what happens when the revolution comes and then goes? Sponsor: audible.com/revolutions Recommendation: The Once and Future King
In 1864, a group of working men formed an international association called The International Working Men's Association.
A Revolutions Podcast Update. Intelligent Speech Sound Education See ya in a week!
The winds have now swept Mexico. To what end? I'll be in Copenhagen: CPH:DOX March 26
It's time to bring the Mexican Revolution to a close Sponsor: audible.com/revolutions
In 1918 and 1919, it was hard to tell whether the Mexican Revolution was heating up or cooling down. Sponsor: harrys.com/revolutions
In 1917, Villa said he would fight on until Carranza was swinging from a tree. Sponsor: https://molekule.com/
In 1917 Mexico got a new constitution. sponsor: audible.com/revolutions.
In March 1916, the United States invaded Mexico. Again. Dome and Bedlam: Ep. 27 Mike Duncan Unscripted Baseball Content Sponsor Link: away.com/revolutions20
In November, 1915 Pancho Villa declared death to the gringos. Sponsor link: audible.com/revolutions
Wherein Pancho Villa is infected with a fatal case of hubris. Sponsor: harrys.com/revolutions
In October 1914 the Aguascalientes Convention met to decide the future of Mexico. Sponsor: Care/Of
In the summer of 1914, the armies of Obregón, Villa, and Zapata drove Huerta into exile.
In April 1914 the United States invaded Mexico. Get 30% off The Storm Before the Storm: Use 30ROME at Checkout Sponsor Link: audible.com/revolutions
Was Pancho Villa an Avenging Angel, Robin Hood, or King of the Bandits? Yes.
Let us begin Phase II of the Mexican Revolution... Sponsor: harrys.com/revolutions
Actually it was more like 13, but who's counting.
After becoming President, Madero decided to alienate his old friends.
After being elected President of Mexico, Francisco Madero enjoyed no peace.
In the summer of 1911, Francisco Madero was not quite President. And that was a bit of a problem. sponsor: audible.com/revolutions
How Porfirian politics helped destroy the Porfiriato
Sulla died believing he had saved the Roman Republic. Boy was he ever wrong. Can you do any better? Can You Save The Roman Republic? Check out the book: thestormbeforethestorm.com
In the spring of 1911, Francisco Madero unleashed the tiger. Let's see if he can control it. Choose Your Own Adventure Game: Can You Save The Republic? Tour Dates! Oct 15 -- Toronto -- Ben McNally’s Oct 16 -- NYC -- The Strand Oct 17 -- Nashville -- Parnassus Books Oct 18 -- Atlanta -- The Carter Library (hosted by A Capella Books)
Francisco Madero had a plan, but it didn't really work. Choose Your Own Adventure Game: Can You Save The Republic? Tour Dates! Oct 15 -- Toronto -- Ben McNally’s Oct 16 -- NYC -- The Strand Oct 17 -- Nashville -- Parnassus Books Oct 18 -- Atlanta -- The Carter Library (hosted by A Capella Books) Come! It's fun! Sponsor: Casper.com/revolutions
Welcome to Morelos. I'd like to introduce you to your host, Emiliano Zapata. Sponsor: HelloFresh.com/revolutions60 Tour Dates! Oct 15 -- Toronto -- Ben McNally’s Oct 16 -- NYC -- The Strand Oct 17 -- Nashville -- Parnassus Books Oct 18 -- Atlanta -- The Carter Library (hosted by A Capella Books) Come! It's fun!
After Porfirio Diaz said he welcomed a democratic opposition, many foolishly took him at his word. Tour Dates! Oct 15 -- Toronto -- Ben McNally’s Oct 16 -- NYC -- The Strand Oct 17 -- Nashville -- Parnassus Books Oct 18 -- Atlanta -- The Carter Library (hosted by A Capella Books) Come! It's fun! Sponsor: harrys.com/revolutions
Just as Mexico was being kicked around by an economic crisis, Porfirio Diaz dropped a political bombshell. Sponsor: casper.com/revolutions
Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico for so long they named a whole section of Mexican history after him. Sponsor: harrys.com/revolutions
In the years after independence, Mexico was a bit unstable. Sponsor: Audible.com/revolutions.
In 1810, Father Hidalgo let forth the Cry of Dolores.
Just by way of refresher, since I know everyone took such good notes during episode 5.1 and 5.2 sponsor: Harrys.com/revolutions
The last week of May 1871 was indeed a very bloody week. Sponsor link: Audible.com/revolutions
🎶Tonight I'm gonna party like it's the year seventy-nine 🎶
The Paris Commune was formally inaugurated on March 28, 1871. Unfortunately no one could agree on what that meant.
On March 18, 1871 the government of Adolphe Thiers attempted to seize control of the National Guard's cannons. It didn't go well. Fundraiser! revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com
You know you're rich when you can afford to eat rats. Fundraiser! revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com
In September 1870, everyone in Paris prepared for a siege. Some of them also prepared for revolution. Remember: revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com
Napoleon III hoped a war with Prussia would save his Empire. Instead it destroyed his Empire. Remember: revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com Hardball Times Article: Shohei Ohtani, The Bambino, and Bullet Joe This Week In Baseball History: Episode 47 - Leon Day Plays Two Ways
First as tragedy, then as farce. Fundraiser: revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com Sponsor: casper.com/revolutions
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Let's figure out what the heck happened in 1848 revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com audible.com/revolutions
The bitter end of the Revolutions of 1848 arrived in the summer of 1849. Visit Audible! audible.com/revolutions Recs: The Storm Before the Storm (duh) and 30 Greatest Orchestral Workd
As the walls close in on the Revolutions of 1848, the final loose ends will be ground up by millstones, but still stamp the future with fertile soil to grow new liberty trees.
Wherein the King of Prussia is offered a dog's collar.
In Dec 1848, the Austrian Empire got a new Emperor.
In Dec 1848, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte was elected president of France.
In November 1848, the Pope took flight.
After the Emperor declared war on Hungary, Vienna launched an uprising in October 1848.
The Frankfurt Parliament is the symbol of the liberal German Revolution of 1848. That's not a compliment.
In the summer of 1848, the forces of counter-revolution began to get the upper hand in central Europe.
On March 23, 1848 the Kingdom of Piedmont declared war on Austria.
In April 1848, the Hungarians won the right to national self-government. But what about the other nations of the Kingdom of Hungary?
The Austrian Imperial Ministry had a habit of cracking down, but then backing down.
With German unification on the way, the question became who exactly was going to be unified anyway? Give a Gift Get A Gift: www.hachettebookgroup.com/stormbeforethestorm
In June 1848, France discovered class conflict. Give a Gift Get A Gift: www.hachettebookgroup.com/stormbeforethestorm Subscribe to Hardcore History Addendum
The Provisional Government of France wanted a political revolution NOT a social revolution. Direct Link: Give a Gift Get A Gift: www.hachettebookgroup.com/stormbeforethestorm Tour! 12/4/17 LOS ANGELES, CA Barnes & Noble -- The Grove, 7:00 PM Reading + Signing 12/5/17 SAN FRANCISCO, CA Book Passage, 6:00 PM Reading + Signing 12/6/17 PORTLAND, OR Powell's Books, 7:30 PM Back where it all began 12/7/17 SEATTLE, WA Elliott Bay Book Company, 7:00 PM Reading + Signing
In March 1848, both Milan and Venice revolted against Austrian rule. Order the Storm Before The Storm: http://thestormbeforethestorm.com West Coast Tour: http://thestormbeforethestorm.com/tour
The fall of the July Monarchy set off a chain reaction throughout Germany that climaxed with intense fighting in Berlin.
On your feet, Magyar, the homeland calls! The time is here, now or never! Shall we be slaves or free? This is the question, choose your answer.
On March 13, 1848, Metternich fell. We did it! New York Times Bestseller List http://thestormbeforethestorm.com
Enjoy! Unless you plan on coming to a future event, in which case you should probably stop listening right now!
The Storm Before the Storm is finally here! http://thestormbeforethestorm.com/ Find me on tour: http://thestormbeforethestorm.com/tour/ 10/24/17 BOSTON, MA Harvard Book Store, 7:00 PM Book launch! 10/25/17 NEW YORK, NY Book Culture, 7:00 PM In Conversation with Jared Yates Sexton 10/26/17 BROOKLYN, NY Powerhouse Arena, 7:00 PM Reading + Signing 10/27/17 PHILADELPHIA, PA Barnes & Noble -- Rittenhouse Square, 7:00 PM Reading + Signing 10/28/17 WASHINGTON DC, DC Politics & Prose...more
There is a spectre haunting Europe.... 10/24/17 BOSTON, MA Harvard Book Store, 7:00 PM Book launch! 10/25/17 NEW YORK, NY Book Culture, Time TBD In Conversation w/ Jared Yates Sexton 10/26/17 BROOKLYN, NY Powerhouse Arena, 7:00 PM Reading + Signing 10/27/17 PHILADELPHIA, PA Barnes & Noble Rittenhouse Square, Time TBD Reading + Signing 10/28/17 WASHINGTON DC, DC Politics & Prose, 1:00 PM Oh nothing, just living out a childhood fantasy
In 1848 there would be no replacing one Bourbon with another. 10/24/17 BOSTON, MA Harvard Book Store, 7:00 PM Book launch! 10/25/17 NEW YORK, NY Book Culture, Time TBD In Conversation w/ Jared Yates Sexton 10/26/17 BROOKLYN, NY Powerhouse Arena, 7:00 PM Reading + Signing 10/27/17 PHILADELPHIA, PA Barnes & Noble Rittenhouse Square, Time TBD Reading + Signing 10/28/17 WASHINGTON DC, DC Politics & Prose, 1:00 PM Oh nothing, just living out a childhood fantasy
In February 1848 the National Guard had finally had enough of the July Monarchy Book Tour! 10/24/17 BOSTON, MA Harvard Book Store, 7:00 PM Book launch! 10/25/17 NEW YORK, NY Book Culture, Time TBD In Conversation w/ Jared Yates Sexton 10/26/17 BROOKLYN, NY Powerhouse Arena, 7:00 PM Reading + Signing 10/27/17 PHILADELPHIA, PA Barnes & Noble Rittenhouse Square, Time TBD Reading + Signing 10/28/17 WASHINGTON DC, DC Politics & Prose, 2:00 PM Oh nothing, just living out a childho...more
In 1847 and 1848 opposition leaders spent good money to eat bad food while listening to bad speeches. Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indiebound Books-a-Million Indigo
The Revolutions of 1848 began in Italy Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indiebound Books-a-Million Indigo
Do you want a constitution? Well, too bad. Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indiebound Books-a-Million Indigo
The mid-1840s were a rotten time. Tides of History Interview History Fangirl Interview Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indiebound Books-a-Million Indigo
1000 years of Hungarian history in 38 minutes. Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indiebound Books-a-Million Indigo
In the years after the Napoleonic conquest, the dream of Italian liberation and unification took root. Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indiebound Books-a-Million
It may not be Holy or Roman anymore, but it was still an Empire... Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indibound Books-a-Million
The long road to Germany has begun.
Audio excerpt from The Storm Before the Storm: The Beginning of the End of the Roman Republic by Mike Duncan. Forthcoming Oct. 24, 2017. Pre-order a copy today! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indibound Books-a-Million Or visit us at: revolutionspodcast.com thehistoryofrome.com
The foundations of the July Monarchy were thin and shallow. Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indibound Books-a-Million
In January 1848 Europe was sleeping on a volcano. Pre-Order The Storm Before the Storm! Amazon Powells Barnes & Noble Indibound Books-a-Million
In June 1832 a bunch of radical republicans spontaneously broke out in song.
In 1820 the Good Cousins staged a revolution in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
After the fall of Napoleon, Austrian Foreign Minister Metternich attempted to orchestrate a new conservative order in Europe. Sponsor: Bombfell.com/revolutions.
In 1830, the Belgians said we don't want to be a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands anymore.
What the heck did the rest of France think about the July Revolution? Sponsor Link: Audible.com/revolutions
King Charles X should have never signed the Four Ordinances. You know. In hindsight.
Time to get this piece on the board.
On Wed July 28, 1830 the people of Paris proved that piles of rubble were the key to urban revolution.
On Monday July 26, 1830 the Four Ordinances were published. On Tuesday July 27 the July Revolution began.
In early 1830 King Charles X tried to beat back the liberal opposition. Instead they came back stronger than ever.
After ascending to the throne in 1824 Charles X wanted to impose his ultra-royalism on France, but his annoying subjects kept resisting.
After the fall of Napoleon, the Bourbon monarchy was restored.
In 1830, both Simon Bolivar and Gran Colombia died.
On Sept 25, 1828 Simón Bolívar went out the window.
At the end of 1826 Simon Bolivar returned to Colombia to deal with the revolt of Jose Antonio Paez.
In 1825 Upper Peru became the independent nation of Bolivia.
Wherein Gen. Sucre wins a very Bolivarian battle.
Simòn Bolívar and Jose de San Martin met for the first and only time in July 1822
In 1822, Antonio Jose Sucre and Simon Bolivar liberated Quito and made Gran Colombia whole. Sponsor Link: Harrys Razors
Title kinda says it all.
Lord Thomas Cochrane turned out to be the key to Peru.
José de San Martín gets zonked on opium and marches through the Andes.
On June 24, 1821 the Battle of Carabobo secured permanent independence for Venezuela. http://revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com/
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Do not buy land in Poyais.
In 1820 a mutiny in Cádiz changed the course of Spanish American history. .
In July 1819 Bolívar led a legendary march into the mountains to liberate New Granada once and for all.
In January 1818 Simón Bolívar met José Antonio Páez. The War of Venezuelan Independence would never be the same.
With an assist from the Republic of Haiti, Simon Bolivar launched a new expedition to Venezuela in 1816.
Enter José de San Martín and Bernardo O'Higgins.
The restoration of King Ferdinand VII spelled big trouble for Spanish American Independence.
In 1814 Simón Bolívar met the Legions of Hell. It wasn't pretty.
Simón Bolívar left Venezuela in 1812. He came back in 1813.
Things did not go well for the First Venezuelan Republic.
in 1810 Simón Bolívar brought Francisco de Miranda home.
Further unrest plagued Spanish America in 1809 as the situation deteriorated back in Spain.
In May 1808 Napoleon deposed the Spanish Monarchy.
1n 1806, two invasions of South America tested the waters of independence. Also, Bolívar swears to liberate his country or die trying.
After the Seven Years War the Spanish American Empire was hit with an array of revolts. Also six degrees of Francisco de Miranda.
After the Bourbons came to power they reformed the Spanish Empire and along the way created the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
After Columbus "discovered" America the Spanish built up an empire upon which the sun never set.
After declaring independence, Jean-Jacques Dessalines ordered the extermination of the white French.
Done at the headquarters of Gonaives, the first day of January 1804, the first year of independence.
The new nation of Haiti was born on New Years Day 1804.
In the summer of 1802 the worst Yellow Fever epidemic on record hit Saint-Domingue--making it very difficult to re-impose slavery.
With the massive expedition he assembled, Bonaparte reckoned it would take three months to retake Saint-Domingue.
In 1801 Toussaint Louverture annexed Santo Domingo and promulgated a new constitution without permission from France. First Consul Bonaparte was not amused.
From 1799-1800 Toussaint Louverture and Andre Rigaud fought a civil war for control of Saint-Domingue.
Toussaint Louverture began to craft an independent foreign policy for Saint-Domingue in 1798.
In 1797, Touissant used the conservative victory in the elections of Year V to solidify his own position in Saint-Domingue.
By mid-1796, Toussaint Louverture had no rival on Saint-Domingue. Then Sonthonax came back.
From the summer of 1794 to the summer of 1795, the future of Saint-Domingue hung in the balance.
In February 1794, the National Convention not only ratified the emergency emancipation of the slaves, they extended it even further.
Le Cap burns. White colonial rule ends. The slaves are freed.
The Second Commission was supposed to implement the Law of April 4 and defeat the slave uprising. This turned out to be harder than they thought.
With slave revolts and civil war erupting in Saint-Domingue, the Legislative Assembly abolished all racial distinctions on April 4, 1792.
First the whites revolted. Then the free coloreds revolted. Then the slaves REALLY revolted.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen sure seemed to imply that men were born free and equal in rights. In fact, it explicitly said so.
Wherein we find out what everyone thought about everyone else. Direct Link: 4.02- The Web of Tension Sponsor link: http://casper.com/revolutions
The French colony of Saint-Domingue was the single most lucrative colony in the New World.
One last look back at the pile of severed heads.
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Napoleon conquered Europe. Then he got beat and the Bourbons came back. Twitter: @mikeduncan
After coming to power in 1799, First Consul Bonaparte achieved many of the Revolution's dreams and healed many of its open wounds. So he declared himself Emperor in 1804.
And his name is Napoleon Bonaparte. Sponsor Link: lynda.com/revolutions Me on Twitter: twitter.com/mikeduncan
When the War of the Second Coalition got off to a terrible start for the French, the Triumvirate that had been running the Directory since 1797 was overthrown. Hey look I'm on Twitter: https://twitter.com/mikeduncan
While Bonaparte was off trying to conquer Egypt, the rest of Europe mobilized against France.
In July 1798 Bonaparte and his healthy, hopeful army arrived in Egypt. In August 1799 Bonaparte ditched his now demoralized, plague-ridden army and sailed for home.
The Directory manipulated the elections of Year VI to block left-wing candidates. Meanwhile Talleyrand provoked the Americans into war and Bonaparte sailed for Egypt.
After Fructidor the Directory cracked down on the conservatives. They also created more sister republicans to systematically loot. Sponsor Link: http://lynda.com/revolutions
After taking a drubbing in the elections Year V, the Directory decided to just annul the results.
Bonaparte almost gets beat! But then he doesn't. Also don't invade Ireland in December. sponsor link: http://lynda.com/revolutions.
Control the central position. Move on the rear. Live off the land. Sponsor Link: http://lynda.com/revolutions
The adventures of everyone's favorite proto-communist. k
When the Thermidorean Convention introduced the Constitution of Year III, the political Right went a little nuts.
That's the slogan that rallied the last remnents of the sans culottes to action...right before they got crushed by the Thermidorean Convention.
The terrible winter of 1794-95 helped France push back all her enemies. Also...Poland!
After the events of 9 Thermidor, the Revolution began to swing back to the right.
Promoting a fundraising drive spearheaded by Scott Chesworth at the Ancient World podcast to help preseve Syria's massively important cultural treasures. Link to The Ancient World for all the Details. Direct Link to the Syrian Heritage Initiative Direct Link to Scott's findraising page for the International Rescue Committee
The events of 9 Thermidor II brought Act I of the French Revolution to a gruesome end.
If the mainspring of popular government in peacetime is virtue, amid revolution it is at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is impotent.
In the spring of 1794. the Revolution devoured a few of her most beloved children. sponsor link: lynda.com/revolutions
At the end of 1793, the Committee of Public Safety completed it's consolidation of power.
Do not get into a popularity contest with George Washington. spnsor link: lynda.com/revolutions
Marie Antoinette thought he was behind EVERYTHING sponsor link: lynda.com/revolutions
In Oct 1793 the French Revolution took a stab at reforming time itself.
In October 1793 the Reign of Terror got started with the executions of Marie Antoinette and the Girondins.
In the fall of 1793, the French Republic started to gain traction against its enemies. Setting up the stage for the Reign of Terror. sponsor: lynda.com/revolutions
In the summer of 1793 a re-organized Committee of Public Safety began to consolidate power.
In the summer of 1793 the Revolutionaries in Paris were besieged from all sides.
Question Time! sponsor link: lynda.com/revolutions
On May 31-June 2, 1793 Paris once again rose in armed insurrection against the national government.
In the spring of 1793 revolts against Paris started erupting all over France. Sponsor: lynda.com/revolutions
After the Battle of Valmy the French armies advanced on all fronts.
King Louis XVI was put on trial by the National Convention and executed Jan 21, 1793.
The National Convention voted unanimously to abolish the monarchy on Sept 21, 1792. Then they proceeded to go at each others throats. Sponsor: lynda.com/revolutions
With the Allied armies approaching Paris, the sans-culottes broke into all the prisoners and slaughtered the inmates.
On Aug 10, 1792 the radical sections of Paris overthrew the monarchy. Store: revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com Sponsor: lynda.com/revolutions
In April 1792 France declared war on Austria. Store: revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com
The new Legislative Assembly convened in October 1791 and quickly put France on the path to war. Fundraiser Store: http://revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com
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As the National Assembly drew to a close, the Triumvirate rose to power. http://revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com
After the Flight to Varennes, populist agistators in Paris called for an end to the monarchy, leading to a bloody confrontation in July 1791. Coming Dec 14: revolutionspodcastfundraiser.com
Would really like to get my hands on the salacious limericks the good Emperor composed while whacked on spice.
In June 1791 the royal family tried to escape from Paris, but they were busted while passing through Verennes. Sponsor link: lynda.com/revolutions
After the Feast of the Federation, Revolutionary France was outwardly calm, but internally divided.
In the leadup to the great Fête de la Fédération, the Marquis de Lafayette and a group of liberal nobles began to direct the course of the Revolution.
After the move to Paris, radical delegates from the National Assembly formed a new political club to help push their agenda.
In October 1789 some angry houswives changed the course of the French Revolution. Sponsor Link: lynda.com/revolutions
After the Night of August 4th, the National Assembly divided into new political factions.
After a wave of chaos spread across France, the National Assembly abolished feudalism on the night of Aug. 4, 1789.
On July 14, 1789 a mob of angry Parisians stormed the Bastille.
English, French and American Revolutions Tours! Spring 2015!
On Day 2 of the Estates General, the Third Estate went on strike. Sponsor link: Lynda.com/revolutions
The debate over the coming Estates General awakened the political consciousness of the Third Estate. Also the weather was rotten.
The king's attempt to break the Parments in the summer of 1788 was was met by widespread resistence.
Round and round and round it goes...
King Louis called the Assembly of Notables in early 1787 to approve a major fincancial reform package. But intead of rubber stamping the initiatives, the Notables scrutinized every detail.
Just as the financial situation was about to explode the monarchy was hit by a public relations nightmare.
As power passed from Louis XV to Louis XVI, royal ministers attempted to implement reforms, but were thewarted at every turn.
The Ancien Regime was a mess in desperate need of reform.
The population of pre-Revolutionary France was divided into Three Estates: the Church, the Nobility and Everyone Else.
Tours. Episode Numbering. Money. Parlez-vous français?
Hang them on the wall of every classroom.
The ratification of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights marks the end of the Revolutionary Era.
Between the end of the War of Independence and the Constitutional Convention the new United States was plagued by problems. The Articles of Confederation were not up to solving them.
As the newly independent United States trasitioned from war to peace, it was tripped up by the ineffective Articles of Confederation.
Lord Cornwallis was trapped in Yorktown in October 1781. His surrender ended the American War of Independence.
Despite the thrashing he gave Horatio Gates at the Battle of Camden, Lord Cornwallis found the Carolinas slipping out of his grasp.
The Episode That Wouldn't Die.
After Saratoga the French joined the war, the British changed strategies and Washington's army spent a miserable winter at Valley Forge.
Gentleman Johnny's Party Train ran into some trouble in 1777.
With the revolution on the line, George Washginton led his army to victory at Trenton. Unfortunately he would be unable to stop the British from taking Philadelphia in 1777.
When in the course of human events...
The American colonies declared independence in July 1776. Then their armies got chased around New York.
After the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord, war between Britain and the colonies broke out. George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief and laid siege to Boston.
The Boston Tea Party led Parliament to pass the Intolerable Acts in 1774. The colonists were really super not amused.
After the failure of the Stamp Act, Parliament passed a new series of taxes known as the Townshend Acts. The colonists were not amused.
After the French and Indian War, the British Ministry started levying new taxes on the colonies. The colonists were not amused.
A brief tour of the Thirteen Colonies.
The English Monarchy was restored in 1660.
After serving in Parliament and the courts of both Charles I and Charles II, Edward Hyde wrote a massively influential history of the English Civil Wars.
Oliver Cromwell died on September 3, 1658. His son and heir Richard was iunable to hold the Protectorate together.
After the Puritans came to power they tried to abolish Christmas. Seriously.
The dissolution of the First Protectorate Parliament led to the brief and unpopular Rule of the Major Generals. When the Second Protectorate Parliament was finally called they tried to make Oliver Cromwell king.
The Instrument of Government was the first written constituion in English history.
In 1653 Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament and then Barebone's Parliament dissolved itself. The Commonwealth was not getting off to a great start.
God wanted me to tell you that property is theft.
For someone who was born free John Lilburne sure spent a lot of time in prison
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Charles II raised an army of Scots to help him claim the throne, but they were defeated by Oliver Cromwell at Dunbar and Worcester.
After Pride's Purge, Charles I was executed by the Rump Parliament on January 30, 1649. Then Cromwell invaded Ireland.
As the New Model Army debated the merits of constitutional democracy, King Charles was scheming to put himself back on the throne.
After the Battle of Naseby ended the King's chances for military victory, he became the frustrating center of post-war negotiations.
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After years of muddling along, Parliament created a more professional army. They finally defeated King Charles at Nasbay in June 1645.
In late 1643, Parliament sealed a military alliance with the Scots. Their combined force defeated the Royalists at Marston Moor.
After negotiations with Parliament broke down, King Charles raised his standard in August, 1642. The opening campaigns of the First Civil War tilted in the Royalists favor.
A brief description of the soldiers who fought in the English Civil Wars.
The Long Parliament convened in November 1640. Tensions ran high as Parliamentary leaders tried to assert control over the State.
The Scots revolted after Charles tried to impose the Book of Common Prayer, forcing the King to recall Parliament.
In the 1630s, King Charles ruled without Parliament. His financial policies and religious innovations annoyed many of his subjects.
In 1625 Charles Stuart became king of England, Scotland and Ireland. His relationship with Parliament immediately got off on the wrong foot.
Welcome to Revolutions.